What is Deductive reasoning?

Part 1:

 Is this cartoon(attached below) fallacious or not?  If so, what type of fallacy do you claim is represented? 

Part 2: Answer the questions below:

1. Select one of the deductive arguments given in the opening Discovery Exercise (pages 328-329) and explain why it seems to be based on good reasoning or not.

2. What is Deductive reasoning?

3. What is a syllogism?  Give an example of a syllogism with a major premise, minor premise, and a conclusion.

4. What is validity?  What is soundness?  How do these influence arguments?

5. Complete the Discovery Exercise on pages 337-338

6. What are three reasons why casting arguments into syllogisms makes it easier for us to analyze them critically?

7. Explain the primary differences between inductive and deductive reasoning.