Rapid Reasoning: Clostridium difficile Colitis

Rapid Reasoning: Clostridium difficile Colitis

Chief Complaint/History of Present Illness:

Mindy Perkins is a 48-year-old woman who presents to the ED with 10-15 loose, liquid stools daily for the past 2 days. She completed a of oral Amoxicillin seven days ago for a dental infection. In addition to loose stools, she complains of lower abdominal pain that began 2 days ago as well. She has not noted any blood in the stool. She denies vomiting or fever/chills. She is on Prednisone for Crohn’s disease as well as Pantoprazole (Protonix) for severe GERD.

© 2012 Keith Rischer/www.KeithRN.com

Past Medical History:

· Crohn’s disease

· GERD

Your Initial VS:

WILDA Pain Scale (5th VS)

Words:

Crampy

Intensity:

7/10

Location:

Generalized throughout RLQ-LLQ

Duration:

Persistent since onset 2 days ago

Aggreviate:

Alleviate:

None

Your Initial Nursing Assessment:

T: 100.2 (o)

P: 92

R: 20

BP: 122/78

O2 sats: 98% RA

Ortho BP’s: Lying: 122/78 HR: 92

Standing: 120/70 HR: 114

GENERAL APPEARANCE: appears weak and uncomfortable. fatigued RESP: breath sounds clear with equal aeration bilat., non-labored

CARDIAC: pink, warm & dry, S1S2, no edema, pulses 3+ in all extremities NEURO: alert & oriented x4

GI/GU: active BS in all quads, abdominal soft/tender to palpation in lower abdomen-no rebound tenderness or guarding

MISC: Lips dry, oral mucosa tacky with no shiny saliva present in mouth

Nursing Interventions:

· Orthostatic BP’s (ED standing order)

· Establish PIV (ED standing order)

· Initiate enteric precautions (ED standing order)

Physician Orders:

· 0.9% NS 1000 mL IV bolus

· Hydromorphone (Dilaudid) 1 mg IVP

· Stool culture for C. difficile

· BMP, CBC

· Vancomycin 250 mg po

o 1000 mg/20 mL…determine dosage to administer

· Admit to medical unit

Lab/diagnostic Results:

· Stool culture for C. difficile: Positive

BMP

Current

High/Low

Sodium

132

Potassium

3.5

Creatinine

1.45

BUN

47

CO2

18

CBC

Current

High/Low

WBC

12.6

HGB

14.5

PLTS

188

Neuts. %

86

Lymphs %

10

1. What data from the chief complaint, VS & nursing assessment is RELEVANT that must be recognized as clinically significant to the nurse?

RELEVANT data: Chief complaint: VS/assessment: Rationale:

2. What lab/diagnostic results are RELEVANT that must be recognized as significant to the nurse?

RELEVANT Diagnostic results: Rationale:

3. What is the primary problem that your patient is most likely presenting with?

4. What is the underlying cause /pathophysiology of this concern?

5. What nursing priority will guide your plan of care?

6. What interventions will you initiate based on this priority?

Nursing Interventions 1. 2. 3. 4. Rationale: 1. 2. 3. 4. Expected Outcome: 1. 2. 3. 4.

7. What is the relationship between the following nursing interventions/physician orders and your patient’s primary medical problem?

Nsg. Interventions/MD orders: Orthostatic BP’s (ED standing order) Establish PIV (ED standing order) Initiate enteric precautions (ED standing order) 0.9% NS 1000 mL IV bolus Hydromorphone (Dilaudid) 1 mg IVP Stool culture for C. difficile BMP CBC Vancomycin 250 mg po Admit to medical unit Rationale: Expected Outcome:

8. What body system(s) will you most thoroughly assess based on the patient’s chief complaint and primary/priority concern?

9. What is the worst possible complication to anticipate? (start with A-B-C priorities)

10. What nursing assessment(s) will you need to initiate to identify and respond to quickly if this complication develops?

11. What is the patient likely experiencing/feeling right now in this situation?

12. What can you do to engage yourself with this patient’s experience, and show that they matter to you as a person?