OSH 499 MTU Hazardous Ergonomics of Exposure to Sedentary Working Behavior and Environment Paper

Running head: ROTARY SLIPS LIFTER Rotary Slips Lifter (RSL) Hadi Saad Al Dossari Hussain Essa Al Jar Montana Tech University of Montana 1 ROTARY SLIPS LIFTER 2 Rotary Slips Lifter Abstract Oil exploration is an industry that is replete with serious hazards and risks and as a consequence it suffers high injury and fatality rates. The unique and high-risk conditions inherent to oil and gas exploration calls for advancements in their safety performance and operation systems. Design of equipment and procedures are fundamental steps to ensuring safety and economic expansion of the involved organizations. Such developments include improved equipment and methods for lifting the slips responsible for clamping the drill pipes. Conventionally, these slips are lifted manually by roughnecks who work in groups of 2-3 usually in shifts of up to 12 hrs. Eventually, these workers experience fatigue consequently lowering their productivity, and exposing them to the propensity for injury. Manual lifting is also hazardous and may lead to musculoskeletal injury. After an exhaustive review of the steps, jobs, and tasks involved in the drill rig’s processes, we chose to focus on developing enhancements for managing rotary slips. This project will present a design and process change, with the integration of a hydraulic jack into the drilling rigs to eliminate manual handling and the resulting hazards exposed to the Roughnecks. The jack will enhance the process by automatically lifting the slips from their position once the drill pipes are fitted. The base material for the design is steel since it is robust and will endure the applied workload. The improved operation of the equipment will guarantee the safety of workers and relief from strenuous hard labor associated with the manual removal of the slips. ROTARY SLIPS LIFTER 3 Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1: Background Information 1.1.1: History of drilling Oil drilling has been traced back 2,000 years; China has the hoariest evidence for oil drilling as they started in 374AD. Workers during those times used bamboo sticks to drill the oilwells which were around 800 ft. deep (Laik, 2018). However, contemporary oil drilling started in the 19th century. In 1859, Edwin Drake from the United States of America (Bissell, 2016) drilled the first oil well, where he invested in refining the crude oil for making kerosene for lighting purposes. During those times, lanterns became prevalent, and people used kerosene to light them. In the early 1900s oil was identified as the primary source of energy providing fuel for automobiles and industrial plants (Fattouh, Poudineh, & West, 2018). Several oil exploration firms established rigs after uncovering the presence of oil in particular places thereby extracting it for refining. In the 21st century, oil still accounts for 60% use in automobiles, ships, and planes, while the remaining 40% is used in industries and households (Fattouh, Poudineh, & West, 2018). Oil exploration and use will supposedly still be predominant as there are more oil deposits yet to be reached. With the continuous advancements in technological methods, more oil is constantly being accessed. Countries like the United States are reported to have over 35 billion oil barrels still underneath, yet to be explored (Fattouh, Poudineh, & West, 2018). 1.1.2: Oil and Gas Injury and Illness Oil exploration process starts with the identification; then rigs are established and later, various personnel employed to carry out the routine tasks. Personnel in an oil extraction firm include the Driller, Boilerman, Toolpusher, and Roughnecks while nowadays engineers and ROTARY SLIPS LIFTER 4 scientists are also incorporated in the working processes (Ryggvik, 2018). These specialists assist in research and design of suitable extraction processes including improvements on equipment such as slips, to catch up with the technological undercurrents and to prevent the associated hazards. The teams of individuals are exposed to injury and illness risks in the course of performing their tasks. While some injuries and illnesses could be nonfatal, some could lead to a worker suspending their services until they recover and that cause lost work days. That consequently affects the particular oil firm socially and economically. The chart below presented by Bureau of Labor and Statistics (BLS, 2016), displays fatal occupational injuries in the private oil and gas extraction industries by event or exposure from 2003 to 2015. ROTARY SLIPS LIFTER 5 1.1.3: Types of Drilling Various methods for drilling oil-wells have been applied over some years, ever since the discovery of oil. Selection of a particular technique is entirely contingent on some aspects, for instance, the location of the oil deposits. Some of such methods include Electro-drilling, Percussion drilling, Directional drilling, and Rotary drilling (Zhang, Zou & Cheng 2016). These methods are suitable for different geographical areas including land and offshores. Since oil deposits are located beneath the earth’s crust, all these methods deploy drilling techniques. Rotary drilling is commonly used by several oil exploration firms due to its acclimatization to both land and offshore drilling. 1.1.4: Rotary Slips Conventional rotary slips are designed with handles to allow the roughnecks to lift them in and out of the rotatory table during the drilling operation (Xue, Huang, Wang, Li & Liu, 2019). In some firms, the conventional drills are still operational while advanced systems nowadays use newly designed Automatic Rotary Slips. An Automatic slip is constructed in such a way that it is attached to a rotatory table that clinches the drill pipe (Bavadiya, 2015). It is essential while the drill pipe portions are being fitted together, as it clasps the lower part of the pipe. The Automatic Rotary Slips correspondingly have an arm structure assembled on the table; the arm operates as the lifting mechanism (Bavadiya, 2015). Other designs of the rotary slips comprise of a stationary slip bowl, attached to the rotatory table with bearings on the inside to allow rotation of the table plus the descending and rising motion of the pipe. The lifting mechanism applied in such designs includes fluid actuated pistons on the arm lifter, responsible for raising and lowering the slips. Other pistons are attached for supporting the rotary table to uphold it to the desired level (Stewart, & Roper, 2018). ROTARY SLIPS LIFTER 6 Most of the existing oil exploration firms deploy conventional, and automatic rotary slips with the arm lifting mechanism (Hyne & Ormston, 2014). The conventional ones are tiresome due to their weight which the Roughnecks have to bear while lifting and lowering them manually. The stress and strain lead to fatigue which in turn results in workers’ insufficiency to complete the working process safely as progressive fatigue may result in injury and loss of productivity for an extended period. In addition, the automatic slips are detrimental to oil extraction processes and negatively affect production. First of all, the availability of several joints and linkages increase the possibilities of failures due to manual weaknesses. The fitted slip bowl and pistons might also be a source of failure, especially on occasions when the equipment is under intense load. The arm lifting mechanism is fitted on the rotatory table beside the slip. That causes uneven balance in the distribution of weight on the table indication that support pistons are usually overloaded. It also does not allow vertical movement over a long distance and does not produce enough force to lift heavy equipment. It is necessary to redesign and enhance the process and tools that will curb these challenges. According to both National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCP), in their publications, “Improving Manual Material Handling in Your Workplace”, one of two types of ergonomics improvements is Engineering improvements, which include rearranging, modifying, redesigning, providing or replacing tools to remove the hazard (NIOSH, n.d.). Mechanisms applied should be designed in a way that remove that hazards, conserves time and energy thereby improve output and reduces risk of injury. The mechanisms should be expedient, and its application should not escalate the current firm’s expenditure. As a priority, they should be safe, posing minimum injury threats and to the health of the workers and be low cost. ROTARY SLIPS LIFTER 7 1.2: Objectives The objective of this project is to propose and design a jack lifter to act as the lifting mechanism for a rotary slip using the concept of Prevention through Design (PtD). The jack lifter design will later be fabricated, tested and then attached to slips. Chapter 2: Methods 2.1: Design Criteria In the course of coming up with the project design, the following factors were and still are carefully considered. First of all, the machine should have an easy-to-use mechanism. Most of the roughnecks in the firms are relatively limited in their capacity to use technical equipment therefore may not be proficient in operating complex systems. It should be easy to use, safe and economical to fabricate such that the process and tools used in the fabrication process should not pose a safety threat while it should be at an affordable price. The machine should also provide for easy assembling and disassembling to allow for efficient maintenance and repair. 2.2: Materials The table below illustrates the materials used in the fabrication of the hydraulic jack lifter. Table 1: bill of materials Part no. Part Name Material Quantity 1 Base Casted steel 1 2 Pump housing Mild steel 1 3 Pump rod Mild steel SA 36 1 ROTARY SLIPS LIFTER 8 4 Alligator clips Aluminum 2 5 Handles Mild steel 2 6 Outer cylinder barrel Mild steel SA 36 1 7 O-rings Rubber 8 8 Washers Mild steel 2 9 Wheels Rubber 4 2.3: Operation of the Designed Equipment The designed equipment essentially lifts the slip in position and out in the rotatory table. It uses hydraulic operated pistons which are actuated by a fluid. It is run by a remote pedal where pressing it actuates the piston to move outwards. As it moves outwards and upwards, it pulls the slip out of the clamping position. Once the pipe is fitted, the pedal is released thereby moving the piston inwards and downwards. It lowers the slip in the clamping position thus holding the pipe in place. It has a sliding frame that provides for sliding the equipment away from the pipe, up to 60 centimeters, and back towards it, along the rotary table. Chapter 3: Discussion This project involved detailed research on the materials suitable for fabrication of the equipment and its components. The choice for steel was influenced by its exceptional characteristics; steel is tough, strong, durable and also weldable. That makes it the perfect choice for the equipment as toughness is crucial for the accommodation of the load. However, steel is an expensive meta and that could be a barrier towards achieving the automated rotary slips. The jack lifter also requires high level of maintenance and that could cause unnecessary expenditure ROTARY SLIPS LIFTER 9 for the company. Nonetheless, a jack lifter is a convenient tool for use as it offers several benefits. First of all, it minimizes failures as the equipment requires a high level of maintenance by ensuring oil is regularly applied in moving components. It espouses the safety of the Roughnecks since they do not set down the slips manually which would have otherwise impeded their safety. It also promotes high workers output as it reduces fatigue. The most commonly used method is the manual lifting of the rotary slips which involves 2 or 3 roughnecks. While there are other proposed automatic lifters with an arm-like structure for lifting the rotary slips, they are not as effective as a jack lifter. While lifting rotary slips manually increases the risk of injury to the roughnecks, the jack lifter provides for a safer means of lifting the rotary slips. If one trips while lifting the slips and gets subjected to pinch points, they may get severely injured while lifting also exposes one to back pains. With a jack lifter, all a worker has to do is press a button to activate the motion in and out of the slip’s position. Manual lifting consumes more time as compared to the jack lifter. The rate at which manual slips are lifted depends on the workers, and after handling them for a prolonged period, they may get fatigued resulting in slowed work rate. A jack lifter performs the lifting task consistently and does not reduce overall work time. Unlike the manual rotary slip lifting which requires 2 or 3 workers to set them in position, jack lifter requires only one operator. Once the jack lifter is set in place, one worker is needed to operate it. In the end, the reduction of labor reduces the risk factor as well as reducing the production cost of the oil firm. ROTARY SLIPS LIFTER 10 The jack lifter attached rotary slips will ultimately take over and replace the conventional rotary slips. Moreover, the rapid advancements in technology might compel the oil firms to shift to automated processes. That might take effect in the course of the mid-21st century considering the existing developments in various systems. If the rotary slip’s jack lifter design is embraced, it will benefit over 800 oil rigs already existing in the United States. Chapter 4: Conclusion In conclusion, the project presented was completed successfully and it operated as per the design specifications. Designing and fabricating the project for safe and productive applications inspired us to conceptualize and apply the class coursework into real engineering work. That is substantial progress towards achieving a safer working environment for both the workers and the running machines. We hope to continually serve the society with the aim of eradicating ergonomic risks and other associated hazards. ROTARY SLIPS LIFTER 11 References Bavadiya, V. A., Aljubran, M. J., Kibe, J. M., Christy, S. M., Le, H. N., Ahmed, R., & Florence, F. (2015, September). Design, construction and operation of an automated drilling rig for the DSATS university competition. In SPE annual technical conference and exhibition. Society of Petroleum Engineers. Bissell, G. H. (2016). How did Edwin Drake Create the World’s First Oil Well. Daily History Writers, 18. Fattouh, B., Poudineh, R., & West, R. (2018). The rise of renewables and energy transition: what adaptation strategy for oil companies and oil-exporting countries?. Hyne, N. J., & Ormston, S. E. (2014). Dictionary of petroleum exploration, drilling & production. Laik, S. (2018). Offshore Petroleum Drilling and Production. CRC Press. NISOH. (n.d.) Ergonomic guidelines for manual material handling. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2007‐131. Retrieved from https://www.dir.ca.gov/dosh/dosh_publications/mmh.pdf. Ryggvik, H. (2018). Norwegian Oil Workers: From Rebels to Partners in the Tripartite System. In Working for Oil (pp. 99-130). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. Stewart, C. S., & Roper, R. R. (2018). U.S. Patent Application No. 15/934. Xue, Q., Huang, L., Wang, J., Li, L., & Liu, B. (2019, March). The Specialty of Push-the-Bit Rotary Steerable Tool Dynamics. In SPE/IADC International Drilling Conference and Exhibition. Society of Petroleum Engineers. ROTARY SLIPS LIFTER 12 Zhang, C., Zou, W., & Cheng, N. (2016, August). Overview of rotary steerable system and its control methods. In 2016 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation (pp. 1559-1565). IEEE. Running head: ROTARY SLIPS LIFTER Rotary Slips Lifter (RSL) Hadi Saad Al Dossari Hussain Essa Al Jar Montana Tech University of Montana 1 ROTARY SLIPS LIFTER 2 Rotary Slips Lifter Abstract Oil exploration is an industry that is replete with serious hazards and risks and as a consequence it suffers high injury and fatality rates. The unique and high-risk conditions inherent to oil and gas exploration calls for advancements in their safety performance and operation systems. Design of equipment and procedures are fundamental steps to ensuring safety and economic expansion of the involved organizations. Such developments include improved equipment and methods for lifting the slips responsible for clamping the drill pipes. Conventionally, these slips are lifted manually by roughnecks who work in groups of 2-3 usually in shifts of up to 12 hrs. Eventually, these workers experience fatigue consequently lowering their productivity, and exposing them to the propensity for injury. Manual lifting is also hazardous and may lead to musculoskeletal injury. After an exhaustive review of the steps, jobs, and tasks involved in the drill rig’s processes, we chose to focus on developing enhancements for managing rotary slips. This project will present a design and process change, with the integration of a hydraulic jack into the drilling rigs to eliminate manual handling and the resulting hazards exposed to the Roughnecks. The jack will enhance the process by automatically lifting the slips from their position once the drill pipes are fitted. The base material for the design is steel since it is robust and will endure the applied workload. The improved operation of the equipment will guarantee the safety of workers and relief from strenuous hard labor associated with the manual removal of the slips. ROTARY SLIPS LIFTER 3 Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1: Background Information 1.1.1: History of drilling Oil drilling has been traced back 2,000 years; China has the hoariest evidence for oil drilling as they started in 374AD. Workers during those times used bamboo sticks to drill the oilwells which were around 800 ft. deep (Laik, 2018). However, contemporary oil drilling started in the 19th century. In 1859, Edwin Drake from the United States of America (Bissell, 2016) drilled the first oil well, where he invested in refining the crude oil for making kerosene for lighting purposes. During those times, lanterns became prevalent, and people used kerosene to light them. In the early 1900s oil was identified as the primary source of energy providing fuel for automobiles and industrial plants (Fattouh, Poudineh, & West, 2018). Several oil exploration firms established rigs after uncovering the presence of oil in particular places thereby extracting it for refining. In the 21st century, oil still accounts for 60% use in automobiles, ships, and planes, while the remaining 40% is used in industries and households (Fattouh, Poudineh, & West, 2018). Oil exploration and use will supposedly still be predominant as there are more oil deposits yet to be reached. With the continuous advancements in technological methods, more oil is constantly being accessed. Countries like the United States are reported to have over 35 billion oil barrels still underneath, yet to be explored (Fattouh, Poudineh, & West, 2018). 1.1.2: Oil and Gas Injury and Illness Oil exploration process starts with the identification; then rigs are established and later, various personnel employed to carry out the routine tasks. Personnel in an oil extraction firm include the Driller, Boilerman, Toolpusher, and Roughnecks while nowadays engineers and ROTARY SLIPS LIFTER 4 scientists are also incorporated in the working processes (Ryggvik, 2018). These specialists assist in research and design of suitable extraction processes including improvements on equipment such as slips, to catch up with the technological undercurrents and to prevent the associated hazards. The teams of individuals are exposed to injury and illness risks in the course of performing their tasks. While some injuries and illnesses could be nonfatal, some could lead to a worker suspending their services until they recover and that cause …