Leadership and Trust in Team Collaboration Essay

Leadership and Trust in Team Collaboration Essay

Leadership and Trust in Team Collaboration Essay

Leaders within health care organisations have traditionally viewed their role as a transactional activity (Vanvactor, 2012). The definition of health care management tends to be hierarchical and often grounded in the idea of facilitating management linearly. To facilitate change, health care organisations are beginning to evaluate defined outside of traditional parameters. The key to successful change, according to Cohn (2009), lies in each person assuming a proactive role toward improving team performance, recognising that every member of a team has a leadership role in the health care environment.

According to Hurley (2011) effective leadership in today’s economic and social climate requires a different breed of leaders who instead of leading through sheer power, charisma and dogma, are focused on achieving change and innovation by working at the same level with their subordinates. This type of leadership is called collaborative leadership. Although there are several definitions of the term, there is a consensus among social scientists that collaborative leadership is an open process which involves collaborative problem solving and decision making (Hurley 2011; De Meyer, 2011). Rather than leading the group, a collaborative leader is focused on the process of bringing change.

Collaboration has become an essential ingredient for organisational success. As more and more organisations move toward a collaborative culture including the NHS, a new leadership model is emerging – one that replaces command and control with trust and inclusion (Stadtler, 2009; Vanvactor, 2012). The leader’s new role is to encourage team members to see themselves as valued contributors, to help them build their knowledge base and expand their personal networks, and to motivate them to offer their ideas and perspectives in service of a common goal. Collaborative leaders understand how to create an environment in which people choose to participate and contribute. Inspiring, interactive and energising (Hofstetter, 2006). The rationale for this research is to understand how current leaders are within the organisation and which leadership traits are prevalent amongst them.

1.1 Research aims

There are two explicit aims of the research which are; to understand and explore collaborative leadership traits amongst leaders in an NHS Trust and to explore whether and if so how collaborative leadership traits are prevalent during a change in Trust values.

1.2 Background information

The Trust that is being researched has recently changed their visions and values . Vision and values are a core part of a Trust’s identity and how change takes place is usually aligned to these values. Due to a troubled reputation, the Trust implemented the new values to now focus on working in collaboration and improving quality of care.

The values were implemented in March 2018 and this study commenced in July 2018.

Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

Leadership of healthcare professionals is necessary to facilitate the integration and quality of care, especially when there is an organisation change of both the vision and values (Orchard & Rhykoff, 2015). An appropriate team leadership increases stakeholder engagement and well-being to foster continuous improvement,, innovation and a focus on quality (Yang & Mossholder, 2010). There is a need to facilitate the process of creating and sustaining cultures of openness and transparency. The change efforts made in an NHS trust are not matched with concepts of economy decision-making, corporate practice and the policy making power. Working in collaboration can, therefore, improve team performance and increase participation in both planning and decision-making (Powell, 2016). The literature review applied a scoping methodology (Cacchione, 2016) to synthesise as well analyse a broad category of research material. Thus, there are increased possibilities of getting conceptual clarity on collaborative and equitable leadership in the healthcare environment.

2.2 Theories of Collaborative Leadership

Collaborative leadership is a style that aids in getting efficient and effective results across both the internal and external organisational boundaries (Archer & Cameron, 2012). According to Goman (2014), the subjectivities and power dynamics associated with collaboration involve macro-social, interpersonal, structural and institutional contexts. Cooperation in the intellectual endeavours is a necessary requirement for a sustainable success among leaders who seek to build better relationships, share control and manage conflicts appropriately (Orchard & Rhykoff, 2015). In the current interdependent global context, collaborative leadership is essential in creating inclusive environments that can energise a particular team accompanied by releasing creativity (Stadtler, 2009). The concepts that are related to collaborative leadership include shared responsibilities, interdependency, partnership and power (Bligh, 2017). Model of team effectiveness, analytical approach of interdisciplinary collaboration, organisational sociology, social exchange theory and interdisciplinary alliance model are the main theories that are used to explain the concept of collaborative leadership.

Model of teamwork effectiveness. Both collaboration and teamwork necessitate a mix of different components encompassing problem-solving, interpersonal relations and communication skills to ensure that a certain group works together as the members focus on attaining a common goal laid out by their leaders (Vanvactor, 2012). Leaders working constructively with individuals in a group as a means to build a collaborative team environment (Archer & Cameron, 2012; Orchard & Rhykoff, 2015). Therefore, leaders who endlessly recognise the benefits that accrue from interpersonal relationships as well as cross-functional collaborations to achieve organisational success practise this leadership style.

Analytical approach of interdisciplinary collaboration and alliance. Leaders from different disciplines within the healthcare sector perform duties and responsibilities properly through teamwork and the analytical approach has increasingly become prevalent which is supported by practices and policies seeking to challenge the traditional leadership boundaries (Goman, 2014). Nonetheless, during the process of coordination and sharing of activities, conflicting values and beliefs may lead to collaboration or pose constraints that hinder communication and teamwork (Curtis and O’Connell, 2011).

Organisational sociology. The model conceptualises from four different dimensions, including finalisation, interiorisation, formalisation, and governance (Vanvactor, 2012). Additionally, according to Orchard & Rhykoff (2015), the outputs of the processes may be defined in terms of innovative solutions in the professional practices, satisfaction and quality of care Governance mainly deals with local and central leadership along with expertise and connectivity.

Social exchange theory. Social structures within an organisation can be understood through an in-depth analysis of interpersonal transactions and interactions (Nancarrow, Booth, Ariss, Smith, Enderby and Roots, 2013). Henceforth, comprehend complex personality traits and behaviours of members in a specific group. The individual afterwards (Yang & Mossholder, 2010) will attain the aspect of exchange results from the benefit that a person brings to a team and what. However, leaders can use the negotiation process to optimise the benefits and reduce costs that can result from conflicts and lack of appropriate cooperation (Powell, 2016). The concepts of exchange and negotiation can, therefore, yield an environment of trust and role differentiation.

2.3 Collaborative Leadership Traits

Collaborative leaders share a wide range of characteristics that can facilitate interactions between business partners and employees from different departmental levels and have patience that helps in dealing with a broad category of frustrations (Archer & Cameron, 2012). The first trait involves relentless pursuit for transparency and openness in decision-making to foster accountability and responsibility for actions taken within the organisation (Goman, 2014). At each step of the decision’s paths, there should be a clear explanation of the guiding principles. Second, collaborative leaders view resources as the instruments of actions as opposed to considering them as possessions (Orchard & Rhykoff, 2015). Sharing of resources is a crucial component can result to flexibility and agility that necessitate establishment of shared goals across all the enterprise boundaries. When there is a common ground to communicate and assess decisions and resources, a transparent environment will ultimately be created. Third, there is focus on authentic leadership whereby there is the willingness to continuously follow through the commitments (Yang & Mossholder, 2010).

Furthermore, collaboration requires significant codification of the relationship that exists between rewards and accountability (Nancarrow et al., 2013). In an NHS Trust, more distributed and empowered actions are essential to bring positive outcomes and leaders learn new strategies of gaining more input from the teams and eventually foster their productivity (Curtis & O’Connell, 2011). Another trait is the belief that power is the greatest tool in a particular . Additionally, Powell (2016) argues that there is an aspect of openness in sharing information together with knowledge to create an atmosphere of collaboration and trust. In the NHS, brainstorming is facilitated through increased encouragement of suggestions and ideas from the members working on a project with common goals and objectives (Yang & Mossholder, 2010). Nevertheless, there is characteristic of enabling their teams through the aspect of proportionate allocation of resources and at the right time when they are needed. Collaborative leaders seek to the root causes of issues being raised in the institution and afterwards offer immediate feedback together with personalised coaching to yield higher motivation and productivity (Vanvactor, 2012). The long-term success of an organisation requires leaders who foster and nurture relationships among the employees (Bligh, 2017). Trust and integrity are also essential to encourage loyalty and inspiration among the teams being led (Bligh, 2017). However, this research did recognise that trusting relationships may vary across contexts of more and less