-How was the 1877 end of Reconstruction a “betrayal” of promises made by the U.S. government (i.e., Constitution)?

Read/view: “Study Guide …” lecture notes; F&H Chapters(12) 13, 14; & other resources:  “Ida B. Wells …”; “Banished.”

Read about and explore the various efforts southern state governments, businesses, institutions and individuals made to legally and economically disenfranchise (and sometimes banish) African Americans from their properties, and of the various tactics African Americans (leaders, etc.) used to fight back. Consider the three classic/archetypal leadership tactics (accommodation, radical-protest and ) used by Black leaders in the Reconstruction and post-Reconstruction periods.

In essay format (a full paragraph per question/answer, using as much textual/resources support as possible) answer the following questions:

  1. -How was the 1877 end of Reconstruction a “betrayal” of promises made by the U.S. (i.e., Constitution)?
  2. -List and describe at least 2 state laws (i.e., “grandfather clause”, poll taxes, voting literacy tests…) passed after the end of Reconstruction which created the “Jim Crow” or segregation system in the southern U.S.A.
  3. -How would you describe at least 2extra-legal practices/traditions (i.e., KKK, banishment, segregation …) of the Jim Crow South for terrorizing Blacks into social, economic and political submission?
  4. -In your view, were the Jim Crow tactics effective in terrorizing Blacks? –Describe in detail at least 2 “Self-help” actions (migration, organizations, …) which Blacks took in response to “Jim Crow” injustices and terrorism.
  5. -What are examples of each of the 3 classic leadership tactics (accommodation, radical-protest, and nationalism) and how effective were each of them as responses to Jim Crow injustice and ? 
  6. -Having read F&H chapters 12-13, what are you left wondering about; what questions are left unanswered for you?