Explain how Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin and name the genus of the fungus that makes this antibiotic

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Chapter 15: Chapter Specific
Introduction to Antimicrobial Drugs
1. Explain how Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin and name the genus of the fungus
that makes this antibiotic.
2. Differentiate broad spectrum and narrow spectrum.
3. Compare bacteriostatic to bactericidal drugs.
4. Describe the terms natural, semisynthetic, and synthetic antimicrobials and state the
potential value of drug .
5. Define the terms antibiotic and antimicrobial drug.
6. Define the following and discuss how they relate to drug development: therapeutic index,
selective toxicity, and drug half-life.
Survey of Antibacterial Drugs
9. Describe the four main groups of betalactam drugs and state how they work.
10. Give examples of glycopeptide drugs, state how they work, and describe how they differ
from beta-lactam drugs.
11. Describe how quinolones and rifamycins work (mechanism of action).
12. Outline how sulfa drugs work (mechanism of action).
13. State how macrolides, lincosamides, phenicols, tetracyclines, and aminoglycosides each
work and describe the potential adverse effects of each.
14. Give examples of polypeptide drugs, describe how they work, and state when they may be
Drugs for Viral and Eukaryotic Infections
16. List potential points in viral replication that antiviral drugs may target.
17. Provide examples of antifungal agents, describe the fungal infections they may treat, and
discuss how they target fungi.
18. Describe antiprotozoal drugs—including examples, mechanisms of action, and therapeutic
19. Discuss the main antihelminthic drugs, their mechanisms of action, and medical
Assessing Sensitivity to Antimicrobial Drugs
21. Explain how the Kirby-Bauer test works and what information it provides.
22. Describe how the E-test works and what information it can provide.
23. Define minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration
24. Discuss how broth dilution tests work and state what information they provide.98 Instructor’s Guide for Microbiology
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Drug Resistance and Proper Antimicrobial Drug Stewardship
25. Explain what is meant by antimicrobial resistance and compare intrinsic to acquired
26. Name and describe the three categories of acquired antimicrobial resistance tools that
microbes may use to thwart drug action.
27. Discuss how the use of antimicrobials selects for resistant microbes and summarize how
resistance may spread by agricultural and .
28. Summarize what healthcare workers and patients can do to reduce the emergence of
antimicrobial resistance.
29. List the top three urgent drug-resistant bacterial threats to health in the United States.
30. Describe the challenges and opportunities that exist in developing new antimicrobial drugs.