Evidence Based Practice in Nursing and Health Care Article Critique

Evidence Based Practice in Nursing and Health Care Article Critique

Thank you for your submission. Feedback on your assignment is given to you in three ways: Firstly, through selected rubrics that show how your work was classed against feedback criteria. Secondly, brief marker comments (on text and summarised), linked to the learning outcomes of the module, that indicate areas of your work that that were either particularly strong or would benefit from further clarification or discussion. Finally, you are awarded a summative percentage mark for the assignment. In addition, we include a similarity score or text match score to demonstrate originality of work. Special arrangements: N/A Turnitin Originality Report: 40% similarity reported, no concerns are raised : 1. Demonstrate an ability to reflect on the relationship between principles and practice and assess the implications and consequences of actions and the underpinning rationale for child nursing practice N/A 2. Identify their own and others’ personal beliefs and values and analyse how these might impact upon their relationships with others, including children/ young people and their family/ carers and how the group discussion might have influenced their thinking, views and practice N/A 3. Evaluate the efficacy of their own coping strategies and consider a wider range of potential thoughts, feelings and actions N/A 4. Evidence their progressive development of personal and professional skills Partially met Strengths of your work: 1. You set the scene for your critique, showing some understanding of EBP and in the main body of your work you made a clear attempt to address the elements of the assignment brief 2. On occasion you used literature to support your discussion points, and there was evidence you attempted to apply this to your critique 3. Your reference lists evidences that you have accessed some appropriate information sources to support your discussion Areas which would benefit from further clarification/ can be improved upon: 1. You could have rationalised your choice of framework in relation to your chosen article and you could have rationalised your choice of article. You needed to include literature to support your discussion of critical appraisal and it would have been beneficial to have signposted the inclusion of an appendix 2. The structure and flow of your assignment was at times confusing and your knowledge and understanding of key research processes was very limited; it is important that you keep sight of the aim of this assignment which is to critique a research article. Although it is apparent you have engaged in some independent reading, this was not consistently applied to support your writing. Further reading will support you to develop your knowledge and clarify your understanding of key research concepts and how they applied to your article, please see in text comments for examples of where this could have been achieved 3. You could have developed your conclusion to give greater depth in regards to your own learning, more in depth understanding of the research design would have enabled you to draw more robust conclusions. Although you included an appendix, your annotations were minimal and needed to be developed to demonstrate greater understanding of the research process and this would have enhanced your critique 4. You writing style is somewhat descriptive and would benefit from being more concise. You are strongly encouraged to seek support with your academic writing via student support and the learning hub LATE SUBMISSIONS (if applicable after checking Turnitin submission): Date/Time Received: Deduction: LATE SUBMISSIONS (if applicable after checking Turnitin submission): Date/Time Received: Deduction: This assignment will be centred around the critical evaluation of an academic article using a critiquing framework. The article to be critiqued is an article written by Susan Kirk and Claire Fraser from Manchester University that based upon a medical study conducted in 2014 titled “Hospice support and the transition to adult services and adulthood for young people with life-limiting conditions and their families: a qualitative study” (Kirk, S. and Fraser, C., 2014). Being able to think critically of articles such as this one allows healthcare professionals to effectively understand and implement evidencebased practice. Evidence-based practice can be defined as combining extensive, reliable research with the expertise of professionals and the results of medical trials (Malloch, K. 2010). Evidence-based practice is fundamental to delivering safe care to patients (Horntvedt, M-E. et al. 2018). Providing safe care relies upon healthcare professionals having the ability to critique medical studies, such as the study at the centre of this assignment, and assess their reliability. This allows them to make decisions on whether or not it would be beneficial and safe for patients to receive the care discussed in the article. Kirk and Fraser’s article shall be evaluated using Cormack’s Critiquing Framework (2000) to identify areas of concern within the article. There are several key areas that will be discussed in this assignment to evaluate the reliability of the article, the first will be analysing the question at the centre of the article as well as the aims and objectives of the study. Next, the design and methodology of the study will be evaluated. Thirdly, the subjects, how many people participated and how the subjects were chosen will be assessed to ensure that there were not factors causing the study to lack reliability. The method of data collection will then be discussed to analyse whether it was the most effective method for this particular study. The data analysis and results will then be reviewed to ensure accuracy and reliable results. Finally, the last section of the article to be evaluated shall be the ethics of the experiment, questioning whether or not the study was conducted in an ethical manner. LATE SUBMISSIONS (if applicable after checking Turnitin submission): Date/Time Received: Deduction: This article is titled “Hospice support and the transition to adult services and adulthood for young people with life-limiting conditions and their families: a qualitative study”. This title is very informative and gives readers a great deal of information around what the purpose of article as whole is, however it has been noted in Grant’s (2013) journal article that informative yet short titles attract more readers. By undertaking a study such as this, Kirk and Fraser (2014) aimed to interview young people with life-limiting conditions, and their families and hospice staff who have experienced the transition from paediatric to adult services to gain an insight into their experiences and to identify areas needing improvement. The main reason for undertaking this study is clearly outlined in the article. This is that due to all the medical advances that have been made over recent years, more young people who have life-limiting conditions are surviving into adulthood. In 2013 it was estimated that there were 55,721 adults aged 18 to 40 years-old with a life limiting condition in England alone and these numbers are likely to increase over coming years (Care Quality Commission, 2014). Due to these numbers rising it is vital that the availability and quality of services available to these young adults is increased. Being able to provide young people with a well-coordinated transition to adult services is vital as bad transitions have been shown to have a direct, negative impact on the health of young people with life-limiting conditions (Campbell, F. et al., 2016) The next area to discuss is the design and methodology of the study. The design of this study was simple, it consisted of interviewing young people with life-limiting conditions, their families and hospice staff about their experience of transitions between childhood and adult healthcare services. The methodology of the study refers to the way in which the experiment was done. Kirk and Fraser (2014) outline that they took a qualitative approach to this study to explore the transition between paediatric and adult services for young people. They sought information via an interview from the viewpoints of the young people themselves, their family members and hospice staff to identify their feelings on the transition, their perception of support needs for families and the effect this would have for childrens hospices. Kirk and Fraser (2014) despite only interviewing 39 people, choosing to interview the young people, their parents and staff from the hospice did slightly increase the reliability of the study. Variation in study participants increases the chances of the overall result being a true representation of the entire population. Despite this, the same size is too small to be true representation of the population they are researching, which could question the reliability and validity of the study (BMJ, 2021). Cormack’s Framework (2000), in regards to methodology, questions if this section of the article states the approach the authors used and, in this case, it definitely does, Kirk and LATE SUBMISSIONS (if applicable after checking Turnitin submission): Date/Time Received: Deduction: Fraser (2014) clearly state that they used a qualitative approach, in this case an interview, to obtain their data. The Framework also asks if the chosen method corresponds with the issue at the heart of the research. As the overall results of this study had to be formed from a general opinion of all participants, using interviews to obtain qualitative data was the appropriate method to choose. Jamshed’s article (2014) explains that interviews are the most common method of obtaining qualitative data and medical studies, such at the article at the centre of this assignment, often use a specific structure of questions to ensure that researchers receive appropriate answers to their questions while simultaneously allowing participants to speak freely and express their feelings and opinions openly. Had Kirk and Fraser (2014) used an alternate method to collect data from participants such as a survey, they would have limited the responses of the participants and not have been given as much detail as they received by conducting interviews to collect data. The third area of the article to be assessed using Cormack’s Critiquing Framework (2000) is centred around the participants of the study, According to Kirk and Fraser’s article (2014), out of seventy-four people asked to participate, thirty-two people from twelve separate families as well as seven members of staff agreed to take part. In regards to participants, Cormack’s Framework poses questions upon whether the selection of participants was consistent with the method of the study. In this study all participants were young people with life-limiting conditions who had experienced the transition, the young person’s family member or a member of staff all from one hospice in the United Kingdom. Cormack’s Framework also questions whether the article specified how the participants were chosen which Kirk and Frasers article (2014) does not. It is clear that the sample size used in Kirk and Fraser’s research was very small and the subjects came only from one particular hospice. Very small, limited samples tend to undermine the reliability of medical studies such as the one at the centre of this assignment (Faber, J. and Martins-Fonseca, L., 2014). To collect data from this study, Kirk and Fraser (2014) used a qualitative method. Austin and Sutton’s article (2014) defines this as the method of interviewing study participants regarding their own personal experiences and then recording the findings to generate an overall opinion. Kirk and Fraser (2014) collected data by asking the young people, their family members and healthcare staff questions covering several aspects of the transition from paediatric to adult services. For example, participants were asked to describe how their, or the child’s needs changed as they grew older and what support the participants were aware of to contact for support. In their article (Martin-Kerry, J M. et al., 2018) LATE SUBMISSIONS (if applicable after checking Turnitin submission): Date/Time Received: Deduction: explain that it is important in studies such as these to ensure that the questions within the interview are suitable or easily adaptable according to the age and capability of the child or young person to make sure that the answer they give is reliable. The section of Cormack’s Critiquing Framework (2000) that covers data collection focuses mainly on analysing statistical data. However, the framework does ask the reader to consider whether or not the method of data collection was appropriate, which can be applied to this particular medical article. Using interviews to collect data was very appropriate for the type of data Kirk and Fraser (2014) aimed to collect. Using an interview allowed them to hear the opinions from the young people, their family and hospice staff which they could use to identify shortcomings in the transition between paediatric and adult healthcare services. The penultimate key area of the article to assess using Cormack’s framework are the data analysis and results at the end of the study. The results of the study outlined in Kirk and Fraser’s article (2014) show that as a result of the questions posed to participants, overall, the transition from childhood to adult services has several shortcomings. Some examples of shortcomings that were identified were that parents felt unsure of where or how to get emotional support for themselves now that their child was no longer a paediatric patient. Supporting the parents of children with life-limiting conditions is also a key part of care. It has been recorded that when healthcare professionals support parents effectively, it will help to motivate them to participate in their child’s care which will have a positive impact on the health of their child (Miller, S., 2010). Cormack’s framework outlines several areas to assess when reviewing data analysis. As the data collected in this research was not quantitative and not plotted as a statistic, it is difficult to analyse the data properly and identify trends and variations in data. However, Cormack’s framework does question whether the approach to data collection was appropriate for the type of research and in this case it is. Kirk and Fraser (2014) aimed to explore the personal opinions of people who have experienced transitioning between services so using the method of interviewing was a suitable choice. The final and arguably most important area of the article to analyse is the ethics of the study. It is clearly stated in the article, that before conducting their research Kirk and Fraser (2014) sought approval to proceed from a University Research Ethics Committee. Seeking approval from ethics committees is crucial when undertaking any medical research to ensure that the safety, health and dignity of all participants is maintained. By Kirk and Fraser seeking this approval, they ensured that fully-informed consent was LATE SUBMISSIONS (if applicable after checking Turnitin submission): Date/Time Received: Deduction: received from all the people who chose to participate in this study as well as guaranteeing that all names and locations involved in the study were kept confidential to maintain privacy and to adhere to The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) Code in place at the time. The NMC Code utilised at the time was published in 2008 and stated that the information of all people accessing care must be kept confidential unless it is believed they may cause harm to themselves or others (Nursing and Midwifery Council, 2008). Receiving informed consent before including a participant in a medical study such as this one is also incredibly important because as her article explains (Arnott, L. et al., 2020), children are still classed as a vulnerable group so consent must be gained from them personally or by their legal guardian. If informed consent is not properly obtained and the child or their guardian was not fully aware of what the study would entail, they could take legal action. In conclusion I believe that this article would not be sufficient to use as evidence to underpin evidence-based practice. It is undeniable that the basis of the essay is a crucial issue facing modern healthcare and that improvement in transitions from paediatric to adult services need to be made. Despite using appropriate and effective data collection methods to discover the opinions of people who have experienced the transition to adult healthcare services from childhood services, the sample size that Kirk and Fraser (2014) used was far too small. This small sample size cannot provide representative data for the country as a whole. As stated in the article, data was only collected from 39 people from just one hospice. As only one hospice was used data will not represent the feelings of young people, families and staff from other hospices across the United Kingdom who have alternate experiences of transition. For this reason, more participants from more hospices would need to be interviewed and more data would need to be collected before forming an overall opinion to put at the centre of evidence-based practice. LATE SUBMISSIONS (if applicable after checking Turnitin submission): Date/Time Received: Deduction: Arnott, L. et al (2020) ‘Reflecting on three creative approaches to informed consent with children under six’, British Educational Research Journal, 46(4), pp. 786-801. doi: 10.1002/berj.3619 Austin, Z. and Sutton, J. (2014) ‘Qualitative Research: Getting Started’, The Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 67(6), pp. 436-440. doi: 10. 4212/cjhp.v67i6.1406 Benton, D. C. and Cormack, D. F. S. (ed.) (2000) The research process in nursing. 4th edn. Oxford: Blackwell Sciences Ltd. BMJ (2021) 3. Populations and Samples. Available at: https://www.bmj.com/aboutbmj/resources-readers/publications/statistics-square-one/3-populations-and-samples (Accessed: 7/1/2021) Campbell, F. et al. (2016) ‘Transition of care for adolescents from paediatric services to adult health services’, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, pp. 3-4. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009794.pub2 Care Quality Commission (2014) From the Pond into The Sea, Children’s transition to adult health services. Available at: https://www.cqc.org.uk/sites/default/files/CQC_Transition%20Report.pdf (Accessed: 5/1/2021) Faber, J. and Martins-Fonseca, L. (2014) ‘How sample size influences research outcomes’, Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics, 19(4), pp. 27-29. doi: 10.1590/21769451.19.4.027-029.ebo Grant, M. (2013) ‘What makes a good title’, Health Information and Libraries Journal, pp. 259. doi: 10.1111/hir.12049. Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children (2020) Advice and guidance on getting Ethical Approval from a Research Ethics Committee. Available at: LATE SUBMISSIONS (if applicable after checking Turnitin submission): Date/Time Received: Deduction: https://www.gosh.nhs.uk/research-and-innovation/information-researchers/joint-rdoffice/research-governance/advice-and-guidance-getting-ethical-approval-research-ethicscommittee (Accessed: 5/1/2021) Horntvedt, M-E et al (2018) ‘Strategies for teaching evidence-based practice in nursing education: a thematic literature review’, BMC Medical Education, 18(1), pp. 1-2. doi: 10.1186/s12909-018-1278-z Jamshed, S. (2014) ‘Qualitative research method-interviewing and observation’, Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy, 5(4), pp. 87-88. doi: 10.4103/0976-0105.141942 Kirk, S. and Fraser, C. (2014) ‘Hospice support and the transition to adult services and adulthood for young people with life-limiting conditions and their families: A qualitative study’, Palliative Med…