Topic A. Reason and Revolution
Define what reason meant to enlightenment thinkers.
Reason can mean several different things or be applied to different things even to enlightenment . For enlightenment thinkers, this meant that they were no longer held to what had been taught to them in the past, they were able to make their thoughts based on observations and understanding of what they read and study about the world around them. Reasoning applied not only to the church and religion but to math and sciences as well. Getz and Brooke, 2012 stated, “Reason,” and as the Enlightenment progressed, reason became not only a tool for understanding the world but for changing it as well” (sec. 3.3 para. 6). I think it is also important to point out that reason can also be broken into two types eternal truths and positive truths. Eternal truths are “absolutely necessary,” and positive truths are those that depend on nature (Reason, 2010).
Explain why reason posed a threat to systems like the Church and monarchy.
The “Age of Reason” became a threat to the Church and monarchy because it sometimes went against the set laws established by both. The monarchy and the church were closely tied together form my understanding. Reason gave individuals the ability to make their observations about the world around them and apply it to their lives. Because individuals were beginning to think for themselves and make these observations the previous theological explanations and guidelines were becoming obsolete.
Examine how enlightenment philosophers determined who was capable of reason and who was not.
It is my understanding through the readings this week that where the enlightenment philosophers might have had different perspectives on reason. However, they all seemed to have the same thought of who was capable of reason and who was not. Getz & Brooke (2012) state, “Kant argued that reason provided true freedom, though most people were too lazy to overcome the intentional hurdles they erected for their thoughts and lives” (sec. 3.3 par 7). Other philosophers of the time believed that people were born good and it is only corruption from the institutions that created ignorance and evil to develop in them (Getz & Brooke, 2012). Kant believed in a hierarchical society that depicts who is more of reason. “Kant wrote, Humanity exists in its greatest perfection in the white race … The yellow Indians have a smaller amount of Talent. The Negroes are lower and the lowest are a part of the American peoples” (Bouie, 2018).
Examine either the French, Haitian, or Latin American Revolutions and discuss how the influenced the Revolution.
This question posed to be more difficult for me to answer. I had a hard time gathering my thoughts to formulate an answer, but here is my best shot at answering it fully. During the Enlightenment, the philosophers of the time became increasingly popular. Thomas Pain and his ideas of liberty and equality became extremely influential to the people of France. Members of the bourgeoisie created a National Assembly, refusing to endorse the taxes that Louis XVI was
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