Student Signature Date
Clinical Makeup Case Study Assignment
Mr. Cohen is a 75 year old male is admitted to the general medical floor today with an exacerbation of (emphysema)- He does NOT use oxygen at home- He has been keeping the head of the bed up for most of the day and night to facilitate his breathing which has resulted in lower back pain. Tylenol has not been effective in reducing his pain, so his physician has prescribed oxycodone/acetaminophen (Percocet) 1-2 tabs po every 4-6 hours as needed for pain. Mr- Cohen is on 2 liters of oxygen by nasal cannula. He can receive respiratory nebulization treatments of albuterol every 4-6 hours prn- He needs someone to walk with beside him when he ambulates because he has an unsteady gait and often needs to stop to catch his breath.
Looking through his chart you note the following in his medical history:
Emphysema (COPD) Hypertension
Diabetes type Il Hyperlipidemia
Anxiety Cigarette smoking 1 ppd x55 years
You as the student nurse enter his room and you find him hunched over his bedside table watching TV. He says this position helps his breathing. His lung sounds are clear but notably diminished bilaterally when you auscultate his chest posteriorally. Capillary refill is 4 seconds and slight clubbing of his fingers is noted. His oxygen saturation is assessed continually to monitor for hypoxia. He is consistently between 9092% at rest on 2 liters by nasal cannula.
After breakfast Mr- Cohen complains of lower back pain that caused him to increased discomfort while ambulating to the bathroom. He describes the pain as a “dull ache” and rates it as a “7” on a 0-10 pain scale. He requests Percocet 2 tablets. You obtain his VS: T-99.2 P-90 R-26 BP- 154/82 02 sats 92% on 2 liters per n/c. The Percocet is given and within an hour he states that he feels much better and the pain is now a “2” and would like to walk in the hall.
1 . What diseases in his medical history have been directly influenced by his 55 pack years of smoking?
- Describe the action, side effects, nursing implications and patient for Percocet:
- Based on the time-action-profile of Percocet, what timeframe would be the BEST to reassess the response of Mr. Cohen?
You check his 02 sats one more time and they are 91%. You obtain a portable oxygen cylinder, and take a short walk of 50 feet to the nurse’s station. He states he needs to rest at the nurse’s station because he is feeling SOB. You check his 02 sats and they are now 86% with a heart rate that correlates with the oximeter at 981minute.
- What is your primary concern right now (think A-B-C’s)
- Is there any more nursing assessment data or information you need?
- What nursing diagnosis is most relevant and what will be your nursing interventions based on this concern?
After a couple moments of resting his 02 sats are now 91%, You back to his room where he sits in the chair waiting for lunch. You reassess his lungs and he now has expiratory wheezes bilaterally throughout both lung fields. His 02 sats are now 88%. You decide that respiratory therapy should be called to administer an albuterol nebulizer.
- What is the rationale for the albuterol nebulizer?
- Describe the action, side effects, nursing implications and patient teaching for Albuterol:
- Based on the time-action-profile of Albuterol nebulizer, what time frame would be the BEST to reassess the response of Mr. Cohen?
Ten minutes after the nebulizer he has 02 sats of 93%, and breath sounds are clear but diminished bilaterally,
- Are you moving in the right direction? What assessment findings support
- Briefly describe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). What pathophysiology is occurring in the lungs of a patient with COPD?
- What are the signs and symptoms that the may observe in a patient with COPD?
- Describe the typical physical appearance of a patient with emphysema?
- Are Mr. Cohen’s oxygen saturation readings normal? Explain…
- Explain the effects that acute pain can have on an individual’s respiratory pattern and CV system.
- List five nonpharmacological interventions that the nurse could implement to decrease his difficulty breathing?
- How could you measure the effectiveness of the interventions listed above?
- Explain why it is not best practice to increase his oxygen to help ease his SOB when he was at the nurse’s station?
- What are three nonpharmacological nursing interventions to help manage his pain?
- How would you measure the effectiveness of the interventions to manage pain without drugs?
- Should you be concerned with the adverse effects of respiratory depression and hypotension when giving Percocet? Why or why not?
- What are three nursing diagnostic priority statements that reflect Mr. Cohen’s current status? For each statement list 3 interventions with rationale.
- Statement: Activity intolerance related to imbalance between oxygen supply and demand as evidenced by dyspnea and abnormal heart rate in response to activity.
- Statement: Fatigue related to disease states and poor physical condition, as evidenced by inability to maintain usual routines or level of physical activity.
- Statement: Risk for falls related to difficulty with gait and use of opiates.
You finally receive the following lab results that were ordered upon admission:
Basic Metabolic panel:
BUN: 32 HIGH
Creatinine 1.42 slightly elevated
Sodium: 138 NORMAL
Potassium: 3.2 LOW
Calcium: 9.5 HIGH
Glucose: 165 HIGH GFR-45cc/minute LOW
WBC: 14.0 HIGH
Neutrophils: 88% HIGH
Bands: 11% HIGH
Lymphocytes 12% LOW
Hgb: 13.3 NORMAL
Pit.: 217 NORMAL
CXR: Large bilateral lower lobe infiltrates ABNORMAL
- Identify the lab above that are elevated/abnormal and their clinical significance:
- What is the most likely cause of Mr. Cohen’s exacerbation of his respiratory status?
- What will you specifically assess more closely and what will change in your initial plan of care based on these lab findings?
You need to reconcile and verify Mr. Cohen’s home medications. As you do this, state the reason he is taking each medication based on its indication and its mechanism of action:
- Home Medications
- Advair (fluticasone & salmeterol) diskus 1 puff every 12 hours
- Albuterol MDI 1-2 puffs every 4 hours prn
- Lisinopril 10 mg po daily
- Triamterene-HCTZ 1 tab daily
- Valium 2.5 mg po every 6 hours as needed
- Gemfibrozil 600 mg po bid
- Metformin 500 mg po bid
- Mr. Cohen will be returning home with oxygen after discharge. List at 3-5 safety considerations you should include in your discharge teaching regarding the use of home oxygen.
- What is “pursed lip breathing” and how does it help improve the ventilation of those with ? Be sure to include this in your teaching plan!