Case Study 2, Chapter 11, Innate and Adaptive Immunity
REQUIRED TEXTBOOK: Norris, T. (2019). Porth’s Pathophysiology: Concepts of Altered Health States. 10th Ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN: 978-1-4963-7755-5
Melissa is a 15-year-old high school student. Over the last week, she had been feeling tired and found it difficult to stay awake in class. By the time the weekend had arrived, she developed a sore throat that made it difficult to eat and even drink. Melissa was too tired to get out of bed, and she said her head ached. On Monday morning, her mother took her to her doctor. Upon completing the physical exam, he told Melissa that the lymph nodes were enlarged in her neck, and she had a fever. He ordered blood tests and told Melissa he thought she had mononucleosis, a viral infection requiring much bed rest.
1. Innate and adaptive immune defenses work collectively in destroying invasive microorganisms. What is the interaction between macrophages and T lymphocytes during the presentation of antigen?
2. Melissa’s illness is caused by a virus. Where are type I interferons produced, and why are they important in combating viral infections?
3. Humoral immunity involves the activation of B lymphocytes and production of antibodies. What are the general mechanisms of action that make antibodies a key component of an immune response?
Please be brief with your answers-do not copy answers from the book-read the case study and answer in your own words-briefly! You are not required to cite as your answers should come from your textbook-it is a demonstration that you understand the content and the case study.
Follow this example; Example;
Case Study, Chapter 4, Genetic Control of Cell Function and Inheritance Marsha and Clement are both carriers of sickle cell anemia, a disease that is autosomal recessive. Their first child, Amelia, does not have the disease. Marsha and Clement are planning another pregnancy, but they are concerned about their second child having the condition. Clement’s father died from complications of sickle cell disease shortly before Amelia was born
1. What is the likelihood of Marsha and Clement having a baby with sickle cell anemia? What is the chance the baby will be a carrier of the disease, just like the parents?
The gene is recessive, so the parents will have a 25% chance of giving birth to a child with the disease. There is a 50% chance that the baby will be a carrier
2. Marsha suggested to the nurse at the local family planning clinic that if the baby were a boy, he might have a higher risk of developing the disease, just like his grandfather. How would you respond?
The disease is autosomal in nature, meaning the disease arises from an abnormality on chromosomes 1 to 22. These chromosomes are alike in both males and females.
2. When Amelia, who does not have sickle cell anemia, grows up and marries someone who does have the disease, how likely will her children have the disease?
If Amelia has children to a father with sickle cell disease, the children will be carriers only